Linearisation and automatic scale reduction of bone biology QSP models for data-driven analyses

Background: Bone biology is physiologically complex. Peterson et al [1] developed a QSP model consisting of 28 states that links integrated calcium homeostasis, hormonal control mechanisms and bone remodelling which consists of two continuous processes, (i) bone resorption coordinated by osteoclasts, and (ii) bone formation by osteoblasts. While the model naturally accommodates homeostatic mechanisms it […]

Solutions for nonlinear ordinary differential equations in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic systems

Background: Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic systems are often expressed with nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). While there are numerous methods to solve such ODEs these methods generally rely on time-stepping solutions (e.g. Runge–Kutta) which need to be matched to the characteristics of the problem at hand.  Aims: To explore l  the performance of an inductive approximation which iteratively converts […]