A History of Pharmacometrics in New Zealand and Australia

Nick Holford, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

In the Beginning…

•    Back in the days of Gondwanaland there was a small group of scientists who studied the effects of fermented Potions and made Astrological predictions under their influence
•    They called themselves PAGONDS

Some time later…

•    1976 ADIS (Auckland, NZ) starts “Clinical Pharmacokinetics”
–    First article “Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Infants and Children” Rane & Wilson
•    1983
–    Don Perrier, Head of Dept Pharmacy, Dunedin
–    Gibaldi & Perrier textbook
•    Nick Holford (University of Auckland)
–    MKMODEL for Apple II and the new IBM PC AT
•    “Late 1980s”
–    Robert Purves (University of Otago)
–    Minim for Apple Macintosh
•    1995
–    Steve Duffull (Christchurch)
–    SEBA-GEN (sequential Bayes algorithm for gentamicin)

Dawn of the Population Approach

•    1989
–    Nick Holford returns to San Francisco on sabbatical
–    Learns basics of NM-TRAN/NONMEM
•    1993
–    First NONMEM course in Auckland
–    PANZAS vs PAGANZ (NZ vs OZ!)
•    1997
–    DIA Meeting on Population Approach in Canberra
•    1999
–    PAGONDS become PAGANZ

The First PAGANZ Meeting Auckland 1999

•    Combining PK and PD (Janet Wade)
–    PPPD is still the state of the art
•    Automated Covariate Models (Mats Karlsson)
–    Not much used anymore
•    Disease progression (Nick Holford)
–    Still progressing…
•    Population PKPD Problems (Diane Mould)
–    There are always problems!
•    Paediatric pain and paracetamol (Brian Anderson)
–    Brian got his PhD and is still working on the same topic.

Population Analysis WorkShops (PAWS)

•    Beginners NONMEM Workshop
–    Every year since 1999
•    Intermediate Workshop
–    Deliberately “Intermediate” because Stuart Beal said nobody was smart enough to do an “Advanced” NONMEM course.
–    World leading in topics e.g.   WinBUGS and NONMEM (Steve Duffull & Nick Holford) subsequently also run at PAGE

Global Outreach

•    South Africa
–    PAGANZA (2002)
•    Singapore
–    PAGANZ (2007)
–    Lai San Tham!
•    India
–    PAGIN (2008)
•    ISoP
–    Partner society (2012)

Pharmacometric Tools

•    University of Auckland
–    Wings for NONMEM (Nick Holford)
–    NextDose (Sam Holford)
•    University of Queensland
–    Australian Centre for Paediatric PK (Bruce Charles)
–    TCIWorks (Steve Duffull, Carl Kirkpatrick)
•    University of Otago
–    WinPOPT (Steve Duffull)
•    University of South Australia
–    Australian Centre for Pharmacometrics (David Foster)
•    Monash University
–    TCIWorks (Carl Kirkpatrick)

Pharmacometrics in Oceania

Map supplied by Bruce Charles

Pharmacometrics in Oceania

Pharmacometrics in Australasia – The early years

An account of the early years written by Bruce Charles.